minFraud Score, Insights, and Factors Python API

Description

This package provides an API for the MaxMind minFraud Score, Insights, Factors web services.

Installation

To install the minfraud module, type:

$ pip install minfraud

If you are not able to use pip, you may also use easy_install from the source directory:

$ easy_install .

Documentation

Complete API documentation is available on Read the Docs.

Usage

To use this API, create a new minfraud.Client object. The constructor takes your MaxMind user ID and license key:

>>> client = Client(42, 'licensekey')

The Factors service is called with the factors() method:

>>> factors = client.factors({'device': {'ip_address': '81.2.69.160'}})

The Insights service is called with the insights() method:

>>> insights = client.insights({'device': {'ip_address': '81.2.69.160'}})

The Score web service is called with the score() method:

>>> score = client.score({'device': {'ip_address': '81.2.69.160'}})

Each of these methods takes a dictionary representing the transaction to be sent to the web service. The structure of this dictionary should be in the format specified in the REST API documentation. The ip_address in the device sub-dictionary is required. All other fields are optional.

Assuming validation has not been disabled, before sending the transaction to the web service, the transaction dictionary structure and content will be validated. If validation fails, a minfraud.InvalidRequestError will be raised.

If the dictionary is valid, a request will be made to the web service. If the request succeeds, a model object for the service response will be returned. If the request fails, one of the errors listed below will be raised.

Errors

The possible errors are:

  • minfraud.AuthenticationError - This will be raised when the server is unable to authenticate the request, e.g., if the license key or user ID is invalid.
  • minfraud.InsufficientFundsError - This will be raised when your account is out of funds.
  • minfraud.InvalidRequestError - This will be raised when the server rejects the request as invalid for another reason, such as a missing or reserved IP address. It is also raised if validation of the request before it is sent to the server fails.
  • minfraud.HttpError - This will be raised when an unexpected HTTP error occurs such as a firewall interfering with the request to the server.
  • minfraud.MinFraudError - This will be raised when some other error occurs such as unexpected content from the server. This also serves as the base class for the above errors.

Example

>>> from minfraud import Client
>>>
>>> client = Client(42, 'licensekey')
>>>
>>> request = {
>>>     'device': {
>>>         'ip_address': '81.2.69.160',
>>>         'accept_language': 'en-US,en;q=0.8',
>>>         'user_agent': 'Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux x86_64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/41.0.2272.89 Safari/537.36'
>>>     },
>>>     'event': {
>>>         'shop_id': 's2123',
>>>         'type': 'purchase',
>>>         'transaction_id': 'txn3134133',
>>>         'time': '2014-04-12T23:20:50.052+00:00'
>>>     },
>>>     'account': {
>>>         'user_id': '3132',
>>>         'username_md5': '570a90bfbf8c7eab5dc5d4e26832d5b1'
>>>     },
>>>     'email': {
>>>         'address': '977577b140bfb7c516e4746204fbdb01',
>>>         'domain': 'maxmind.com'
>>>     },
>>>     'billing': {
>>>         'first_name': 'Jane'
>>>         'last_name': 'Doe',
>>>         'company': 'Company',
>>>         'address': '101 Address Rd.',
>>>         'address_2': 'Unit 5',
>>>         'city': 'Hamden',
>>>         'region': 'CT',
>>>         'country': 'US',
>>>         'postal': '06510',
>>>         'phone_country_code': '1',
>>>         'phone_number': '323-123-4321',
>>>     },
>>>     'shipping': {
>>>         'first_name': 'John'
>>>         'last_name': 'Doe',
>>>         'company': 'ShipCo',
>>>         'address': '322 Ship Addr. Ln.',
>>>         'address_2': 'St. 43',
>>>         'city': 'New Haven',
>>>         'region': 'CT',
>>>         'country': 'US',
>>>         'postal': '06510',
>>>         'phone_country_code': '1',
>>>         'phone_number': '403-321-2323',
>>>         'delivery_speed': 'same_day',
>>>     },
>>>     'credit_card': {
>>>         'bank_phone_country_code': '1',
>>>         'avs_result': 'Y',
>>>         'bank_phone_number': '800-342-1232',
>>>         'last_4_digits': '7643',
>>>         'cvv_result': 'N',
>>>         'bank_name': 'Bank of No Hope',
>>>         'issuer_id_number': '323132'
>>>     },
>>>     'payment': {
>>>         'decline_code': 'invalid number',
>>>         'was_authorized': False,
>>>         'processor': 'stripe'
>>>     },
>>>     'shopping_cart': [{
>>>         'category': 'pets',
>>>         'quantity': 2,
>>>         'price': 20.43,
>>>         'item_id': 'lsh12'
>>>     }, {
>>>         'category': 'beauty',
>>>         'quantity': 1,
>>>         'price': 100.0,
>>>         'item_id': 'ms12'
>>>     }],
>>>     'order': {
>>>         'affiliate_id': 'af12',
>>>         'referrer_uri': 'http://www.amazon.com/',
>>>         'subaffiliate_id': 'saf42',
>>>         'discount_code': 'FIRST',
>>>         'currency': 'USD',
>>>         'amount': 323.21
>>>     }
>>> }
>>>
>>> client.score(request)
Score(...)
>>>
>>> client.insights(request)
Insights(...)
>>>
>>> client.factors(request)
Factors(...)

Requirements

This code requires Python 2.6+ or 3.3+. Older versions are not supported. This library has been tested with CPython and PyPy.

Versioning

The minFraud Python API uses Semantic Versioning.

Support

Please report all issues with this code using the GitHub issue tracker.

If you are having an issue with a MaxMind service that is not specific to the client API, please contact MaxMind support for assistance.

Modules

minfraud

A client API to MaxMind’s minFraud Score and Insights web services.

minfraud.webservice

This module contains the webservice client class.

class minfraud.webservice.Client(user_id, license_key, host='minfraud.maxmind.com', locales=('en', ), timeout=None)

Client for accessing the minFraud Score and Insights web services.

Constructor for Client.

Parameters:
  • user_id (int) – Your MaxMind user ID
  • license_key (str) – Your MaxMind license key
  • host (str) – The host to use when connecting to the web service.
  • locales (tuple[str]) – A tuple of locale codes to use in name property
  • timeout (float) – The timeout to use for the request.
Returns:

Client object

Return type:

Client

factors(transaction, validate=True)

Query Factors endpoint with transaction data.

Parameters:
  • transaction (dict) – A dictionary containing the transaction to be sent to the minFraud Insights web service as specified in the REST API documentation.
  • validate (bool) – If set to false, validation of the transaction dictionary will be disabled. This validation helps ensure that your request is correct before sending it to MaxMind. Validation raises an InvalidRequestError.
Returns:

A Factors model object

Return type:

Factors

Raises:

AuthenticationError, InsufficientFundsError, InvalidRequestError, HTTPError, MinFraudError,

insights(transaction, validate=True)

Query Insights endpoint with transaction data.

Parameters:
  • transaction (dict) –

    A dictionary containing the transaction to be sent to the minFraud Insights web service as specified in the REST API documentation.

  • validate (bool) – If set to false, validation of the transaction dictionary will be disabled. This validation helps ensure that your request is correct before sending it to MaxMind. Validation raises an InvalidRequestError.
Returns:

An Insights model object

Return type:

Insights

Raises:

AuthenticationError, InsufficientFundsError, InvalidRequestError, HTTPError, MinFraudError,

score(transaction, validate=True)

Query Score endpoint with transaction data.

Parameters:
  • transaction (dict) –

    A dictionary containing the transaction to be sent to the minFraud Score web service as specified in the REST API documentation.

  • validate (bool) – If set to false, validation of the transaction dictionary will be disabled. This validation helps ensure that your request is correct before sending it to MaxMind. Validation raises an InvalidRequestError.
Returns:

A Score model object

Return type:

Score

Raises:

AuthenticationError, InsufficientFundsError, InvalidRequestError, HTTPError, MinFraudError,

minfraud.models

This module contains models for the minFraud response object.

class minfraud.models.BillingAddress

Information about the billing address.

distance_to_ip_location

The distance in kilometers from the address to the IP location.

Type:int | None
is_in_ip_country

This property is True if the address is in the IP country. The property is False when the address is not in the IP country. If the address could not be parsed or was not provided or if the IP address could not be geolocated, the property will be None.

Type:bool | None
is_postal_in_city

This property is True if the postal code provided with the address is in the city for the address. The property is False when the postal code is not in the city. If the address was not provided, could not be parsed, or was outside USA, the property will be None.

Type:bool | None
latitude

The latitude associated with the address.

Type:float | None
longitude

The longitude associated with the address.

Type:float | None
class minfraud.models.CreditCard

Information about the credit card based on the issuer ID number.

country

This property contains the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country code associated with the location of the majority of customers using this credit card as determined by their billing address. In cases where the location of customers is highly mixed, this defaults to the country of the bank issuing the card.

Type:str | None
brand

The card brand, such as “Visa”, “Discover”, “American Express”, etc.

Type:str | None
is_issued_in_billing_address_country

This property is true if the country of the billing address matches the country of the majority of customers using this credit card. In cases where the location of customers is highly mixed, the match is to the country of the bank issuing the card.

Type:bool | None
is_prepaid

This property is True if the card is a prepaid card.

Type:bool | None
type

The card’s type. The valid values are “charge”, “credit”, and “debit”. See Wikipedia for an explanation of the difference between charge and credit cards.

Type:str | None
issuer

An object containing information about the credit card issuer.

Type:Issuer
class minfraud.models.Device

Information about the device associated with the IP address.

In order to receive device output from minFraud Insights or minFraud Factors, you must be using the Device Tracking Add-on.

confidence

This number represents our confidence that the device_id refers to a unique device as opposed to a cluster of similar devices. A confidence of 0.01 indicates very low confidence that the device is unique, whereas 99 indicates very high confidence.

Type:float | None
id

A UUID that MaxMind uses for the device associated with this IP address. Note that many devices cannot be uniquely identified because they are too common (for example, all iPhones of a given model and OS release). In these cases, the minFraud service will simply not return a UUID for that device.

Type:str | None
last_seen

This is the date and time of the last sighting of the device. This is an RFC 3339 date-time.

Type:str | None
class minfraud.models.Disposition

Information about disposition for the request as set by custom rules.

In order to receive a disposition, you must be use the minFraud custom rules.

action

The action to take on the transaction as defined by your custom rules. The current set of values are “accept”, “manual_review”, and “reject”. If you do not have custom rules set up, None will be returned.

Type:str | None
reason

The reason for the action. The current possible values are “custom_rule”, “block_list”, and “default”. If you do not have custom rules set up, None will be returned.

Type:str | None
class minfraud.models.Email

Information about the email address passed in the request.

is_free

This field is true if MaxMind believes that this email is hosted by a free email provider such as Gmail or Yahoo! Mail.

Type:bool | None
is_high_risk

This field is true if MaxMind believes that this email is likely to be used for fraud. Note that this is also factored into the overall risk_score in the response as well.

Type:bool | None
class minfraud.models.Factors

Model for Factors response.

id

This is a UUID that identifies the minFraud request. Please use this ID in bug reports or support requests to MaxMind so that we can easily identify a particular request.

Type:str
funds_remaining

The approximate US dollar value of the funds remaining on your MaxMind account.

Type:float
queries_remaining

The approximate number of queries remaining on this service before your account runs out of funds.

Type:int
warnings

This tuple contains ServiceWarning objects detailing issues with the request that was sent such as invalid or unknown inputs. It is highly recommended that you check this array for issues when integrating the web service.

Type:tuple[ServiceWarning]
risk_score

This property contains the risk score, from 0.01 to 99. A higher score indicates a higher risk of fraud. For example, a score of 20 indicates a 20% chance that a transaction is fraudulent. We never return a risk score of 0, since all transactions have the possibility of being fraudulent. Likewise we never return a risk score of 100.

Type:float
credit_card

A CreditCard object containing minFraud data about the credit card used in the transaction.

Type:CreditCard
device

A Device object containing information about the device that MaxMind believes is associated with the IP address passed in the request.

Type:Device
disposition

A Disposition object containing the disposition for the request as set by custom rules.

Type:Disposition
email

A Email object containing information about the email address passed in the request.

Type:Email
ip_address

A IPAddress object containing GeoIP2 and minFraud Insights information about the IP address.

Type:IPAddress
billing_address

A BillingAddress object containing minFraud data related to the billing address used in the transaction.

Type:BillingAddress
shipping_address

A ShippingAddress object containing minFraud data related to the shipping address used in the transaction.

subscores

A Subscores object containing subscores for many of the individual components that are used to calculate the overall risk score.

class minfraud.models.GeoIP2Country(locales=None, **kwargs)

Country information for the IP address.

In addition to the attributes provided by geoip2.records.Country, this class provides:

is_high_risk

This is true if the IP country is high risk.

Type:bool | None

Parent:

Contains data for the country record associated with an IP address.

This class contains the country-level data associated with an IP address.

Attributes:

confidence

A value from 0-100 indicating MaxMind’s confidence that the country is correct. This attribute is only available from the Insights end point and the GeoIP2 Enterprise database.

Type:int
geoname_id

The GeoName ID for the country.

Type:int
iso_code

The two-character ISO 3166-1 alpha code for the country.

Type:unicode
name

The name of the country based on the locales list passed to the constructor.

Type:unicode
names

A dictionary where the keys are locale codes and the values are names.

Type:dict
class minfraud.models.GeoIP2Location(**kwargs)

Location information for the IP address.

In addition to the attributes provided by geoip2.records.Location, this class provides:

local_time

The date and time of the transaction in the time zone associated with the IP address. The value is formatted according to RFC 3339. For instance, the local time in Boston might be returned as 2015-04-27T19:17:24-04:00.

Type:str | None

Parent:

Contains data for the location record associated with an IP address.

This class contains the location data associated with an IP address.

This record is returned by city, enterprise, and insights.

Attributes:

average_income

The average income in US dollars associated with the requested IP address. This attribute is only available from the Insights end point.

Type:int
accuracy_radius

The approximate accuracy radius in kilometers around the latitude and longitude for the IP address. This is the radius where we have a 67% confidence that the device using the IP address resides within the circle centered at the latitude and longitude with the provided radius.

Type:int
latitude

The approximate latitude of the location associated with the IP address. This value is not precise and should not be used to identify a particular address or household.

Type:float
longitude

The approximate longitude of the location associated with the IP address. This value is not precise and should not be used to identify a particular address or household.

Type:float
metro_code

The metro code of the location if the location is in the US. MaxMind returns the same metro codes as the Google AdWords API.

Type:int
population_density

The estimated population per square kilometer associated with the IP address. This attribute is only available from the Insights end point.

Type:int
time_zone

The time zone associated with location, as specified by the IANA Time Zone Database, e.g., “America/New_York”.

Type:unicode
class minfraud.models.IPAddress(ip_address)

Model for minFraud and GeoIP2 data about the IP address.

risk

This field contains the risk associated with the IP address. The value ranges from 0.01 to 99. A higher score indicates a higher risk.

Type:float | None
city

City object for the requested IP address.

Type:geoip2.records.City
continent

Continent object for the requested IP address.

Type:geoip2.records.Continent
country

Country object for the requested IP address. This record represents the country where MaxMind believes the IP is located.

Type:GeoIP2Country
location

Location object for the requested IP address.

Type:GeoIP2Location
maxmind

Information related to your MaxMind account.

Type:geoip2.records.MaxMind
registered_country

The registered country object for the requested IP address. This record represents the country where the ISP has registered a given IP block in and may differ from the user’s country.

Type:geoip2.records.Country
represented_country

Object for the country represented by the users of the IP address when that country is different than the country in country. For instance, the country represented by an overseas military base.

Type:geoip2.records.RepresentedCountry
subdivisions

Object (tuple) representing the subdivisions of the country to which the location of the requested IP address belongs.

Type:geoip2.records.Subdivisions
traits

Object with the traits of the requested IP address.

class minfraud.models.Insights

Model for Insights response.

id

This is a UUID that identifies the minFraud request. Please use this ID in bug reports or support requests to MaxMind so that we can easily identify a particular request.

Type:str
funds_remaining

The approximate US dollar value of the funds remaining on your MaxMind account.

Type:float
queries_remaining

The approximate number of queries remaining on this service before your account runs out of funds.

Type:int
warnings

This tuple contains ServiceWarning objects detailing issues with the request that was sent such as invalid or unknown inputs. It is highly recommended that you check this array for issues when integrating the web service.

Type:tuple[ServiceWarning]
risk_score

This property contains the risk score, from 0.01 to 99. A higher score indicates a higher risk of fraud. For example, a score of 20 indicates a 20% chance that a transaction is fraudulent. We never return a risk score of 0, since all transactions have the possibility of being fraudulent. Likewise we never return a risk score of 100.

Type:float
credit_card

A CreditCard object containing minFraud data about the credit card used in the transaction.

Type:CreditCard
device

A Device object containing information about the device that MaxMind believes is associated with the IP address passed in the request.

Type:Device
disposition

A Disposition object containing the disposition for the request as set by custom rules.

Type:Disposition
email

A Email object containing information about the email address passed in the request.

Type:Email
ip_address

A IPAddress object containing GeoIP2 and minFraud Insights information about the IP address.

Type:IPAddress
billing_address

A BillingAddress object containing minFraud data related to the billing address used in the transaction.

Type:BillingAddress
shipping_address

A ShippingAddress object containing minFraud data related to the shipping address used in the transaction.

class minfraud.models.Issuer

Information about the credit card issuer.

name

The name of the bank which issued the credit card.

Type:str | None
matches_provided_name

This property is True if the name matches the name provided in the request for the card issuer. It is False if the name does not match. The property is None if either no name or no issuer ID number (IIN) was provided in the request or if MaxMind does not have a name associated with the IIN.

Type:bool
phone_number

The phone number of the bank which issued the credit card. In some cases the phone number we return may be out of date.

Type:str
matches_provided_phone_number

This property is True if the phone number matches the number provided in the request for the card issuer. It is False if the number does not match. It is None if either no phone number or no issuer ID number (IIN) was provided in the request or if MaxMind does not have a phone number associated with the IIN.

Type:bool
class minfraud.models.Score

Model for Score response.

id

This is a UUID that identifies the minFraud request. Please use this ID in bug reports or support requests to MaxMind so that we can easily identify a particular request.

Type:str
funds_remaining

The approximate US dollar value of the funds remaining on your MaxMind account.

Type:float
queries_remaining

The approximate number of queries remaining on this service before your account runs out of funds.

Type:int
warnings

This tuple contains ServiceWarning objects detailing issues with the request that was sent such as invalid or unknown inputs. It is highly recommended that you check this array for issues when integrating the web service.

Type:tuple[ServiceWarning]
risk_score

This property contains the risk score, from 0.01 to 99. A higher score indicates a higher risk of fraud. For example, a score of 20 indicates a 20% chance that a transaction is fraudulent. We never return a risk score of 0, since all transactions have the possibility of being fraudulent. Likewise we never return a risk score of 100.

Type:float
disposition

A Disposition object containing the disposition for the request as set by custom rules.

Type:Disposition
ip_address

A ScoreIPAddress object containing IP address risk.

Type:IPAddress
class minfraud.models.ScoreIPAddress

Information about the IP address for minFraud Score.

risk

This field contains the risk associated with the IP address. The value ranges from 0.01 to 99. A higher score indicates a higher risk.

Type:float | None
class minfraud.models.ServiceWarning

Warning from the web service.

code

This value is a machine-readable code identifying the warning. See the web service documentation for the current list of of warning codes.

Type:str
warning

This property provides a human-readable explanation of the warning. The description may change at any time and should not be matched against.

Type:str
input_pointer

This is a string representing the path to the input that the warning is associated with. For instance, if the warning was about the billing city, the string would be "/billing/city".

Type:str
class minfraud.models.ShippingAddress

Information about the shipping address.

distance_to_ip_location

The distance in kilometers from the address to the IP location.

Type:int | None
is_in_ip_country

This property is True if the address is in the IP country. The property is False when the address is not in the IP country. If the address could not be parsed or was not provided or if the IP address could not be geolocated, the property will be None.

Type:bool | None
is_postal_in_city

This property is True if the postal code provided with the address is in the city for the address. The property is False when the postal code is not in the city. If the address was not provided, could not be parsed, or was not in USA, the property will be None.

Type:bool | None
latitude

The latitude associated with the address.

Type:float | None
longitude

The longitude associated with the address.

Type:float | None
is_high_risk

This property is True if the shipping address is in the IP country. The property is false when the address is not in the IP country. If the shipping address could not be parsed or was not provided or the IP address could not be geolocated, then the property is None.

Type:bool | None
distance_to_billing_address

The distance in kilometers from the shipping address to billing address.

Type:int | None
class minfraud.models.Subscores

Subscores used in calculating the overall risk score.

avs_result

The risk associated with the AVS result. If present, this is a value in the range 0.01 to 99.

Type:float | None
billing_address

The risk associated with the billing address. If present, this is a value in the range 0.01 to 99.

Type:float | None
billing_address_distance_to_ip_location

The risk associated with the distance between the billing address and the location for the given IP address. If present, this is a value in the range 0.01 to 99.

Type:float | None
browser

The risk associated with the browser attributes such as the User-Agent and Accept-Language. If present, this is a value in the range 0.01 to 99.

Type:float | None
chargeback

Individualized risk of chargeback for the given IP address given for your account and any shop ID passed. This is only available to users sending chargeback data to MaxMind. If present, this is a value in the range 0.01 to 99.

Type:float | None
country

The risk associated with the country the transaction originated from. If present, this is a value in the range 0.01 to 99.

Type:float | None
country_mismatch

The risk associated with the combination of IP country, card issuer country, billing country, and shipping country. If present, this is a value in the range 0.01 to 99.

Type:float | None
cvv_result

The risk associated with the CVV result. If present, this is a value in the range 0.01 to 99.

Type:float | None
email_address

The risk associated with the particular email address. If present, this is a value in the range 0.01 to 99.

Type:float | None
email_domain

The general risk associated with the email domain. If present, this is a value in the range 0.01 to 99.

type:float | None
email_tenure

The risk associated with the issuer ID number on the email domain. If present, this is a value in the range 0.01 to 99.

Type:float | None
ip_tenure

The risk associated with the issuer ID number on the IP address. If present, this is a value in the range 0.01 to 99.

Type:float | None
issuer_id_number

The risk associated with the particular issuer ID number (IIN) given the billing location and the history of usage of the IIN on your account and shop ID. If present, this is a value in the range 0.01 to 99.

Type:float | None
order_amount

The risk associated with the particular order amount for your account and shop ID. If present, this is a value in the range 0.01 to 99.

Type:float | None
phone_number

The risk associated with the particular phone number. If present, this is a value in the range 0.01 to 99.

Type:float | None
shipping_address_distance_to_ip_location

The risk associated with the distance between the shipping address and the location for the given IP address. If present, this is a value in the range 0.01 to 99.

Type:float | None
time_of_day

The risk associated with the local time of day of the transaction in the IP address location. If present, this is a value in the range 0.01 to 99.

Type:float | None

minfraud.errors

This module contains errors that are raised by this package.

exception minfraud.errors.AuthenticationError

There was a problem authenticating the request.

exception minfraud.errors.HTTPError(message, http_status=None, uri=None)

There was an error when making your HTTP request.

This class represents an HTTP transport error. It extends MinFraudError and adds attributes of its own.

http_status:

The HTTP status code returned

Type:int
uri:

The URI queried

Type:str
exception minfraud.errors.InsufficientFundsError

Your account is out of funds for the service queried.

exception minfraud.errors.InvalidRequestError

The request was invalid.

exception minfraud.errors.MinFraudError

There was a non-specific error in minFraud.

This class represents a generic error. It extends RuntimeError and does not add any additional attributes.

exception minfraud.errors.PermissionRequiredError

Your account does not have permission to access this service.

Indices and tables

copyright:© 2015-2016 by MaxMind, Inc.
license:Apache License, Version 2.0